Moving the ball back in your stance or choosing a stronger club and trying to swing easy are other ways to accomplish the same thing, but they’re less …. Downswing -- Maintain Angles From the top of the backswing, the downswing is initiated by the lower body with a rotation of the hips and gradual shifting of the weight to the front leg. It feels steep, but it really isn't. Unsubscribe from Meandmygolf? Sign in to add this video to a playlist. [From Weight Shift in Golf Swing - Herman Williams Golf] Make sure you make a big shoulder turn on the backswing. In this video Steve Johnston tells us that on the downswing the shoulder is a three dimensional move – down, forward and out. Introduction. To help square clubface, try to touch your left forearm with your right forearm at impact. The arms are finally pulled passively across the front of the body as a result of the shoulder rotation (via a double pendulum swing action). Sign in to make your opinion count. Here’s why and how to get more. And the forearm range when used rotationally then PACKS the arms back into the body for the strike as. To generate power during a golf swing, you should use the big parts of your body. Your lower back should remain flat rather than rounded. Stay over the ball. Getting the golf downswing sequence correct starts with a proper downswing transition. It's primarily a 31 page eBook that teaches golfers how to make solid contact with the ball, how to avoid hitting fat, how to avoid slicing, how get more power, accuracy, and consistency in your swing. * Make sure you make a big shoulder turn on the backswing. What I see on a daily basis is players […]. " The key to shoulder position at impact is matching your pivot with your arm swing. Nearly 90 percent of all golfers don’t get the shoulder turn they need. The driving range is a showcase of golf swing mistakes. But my take on it is this, the golf swing already has plenty of moving parts so why add another. If the shoulder slows down or stops for any reason (like being told to keep your head down), the clubhead won’t square off and the shot will most likely be missed to the right. Keep your left hip from shifting to the right as you swing your club back. Golfers Back in the Swing as Presidio, Other Courses Reopen By Joe Rosato Jr. GOLF: How To Tilt The Shoulders In The Golf. It should stay level. Let’s face it. The more consistent your golf swing shoulder turn is, the more consistent your game will be. Back Flexibility for. The young player in the photo has failed to keep her swing pace in good order and thus falls victim to what I call the Hunch – Flip syndrome. The result is consistency and distance. A lot of people stumble upon this discovery on their own - and are surprised at the solid contact they suddenly start making (on just about every shot). Assume golf posture and rotate upper body back and through; Keep lower body quite still and feel the stretch in mid section ("core") Repeat each side 10 times; Benefit to Golf Swing: Prepare golf specific muscles of the trunk to make an aggressive move from the first tee on; Also prepares proper sequencing of swing, while warming muscles. As Steve Elkington explains in his book, Five Fundamentals, "The club starts back, guided not by the arms, hands, or wrists, but by the body. Poor posture: Having forward rounded shoulders and a slouched upper back limits shoulder motion and proper shoulder turn during your golf swing. Stretch the lead. The N-posture is preferred by teaching professionals, but seems to elude many current-day golfers. While many golf instructors advise casual players to keep their swings simple and repeatable, there are a few fundamentals on which any player should focus to develop a solid downswing. Another good feel for me on the backswing is to pinch my right shoulder blade in toward the middle of my back. Try to keep your hands in front of your chest. Read more top golf swing tips. The main reason a correct setup is so vital to a swing's success is it allows golfers to merely rotate the hips and shoulders back and through in the golf swing. 1K subscribers. Getting them back to the correct position once your swing has begun is next to impossible. Viewed from down the line your hands will appear to be just above your right shoulder. The N-posture is preferred by teaching professionals, but seems to elude many current-day golfers. Balance your weight slightly on the balls of your feet. How to Create More Power: Keeping the Shoulders Closed (Video) - by Natalie Adams Natalie Adams – PGA Teaching Pro Creating more power in your golf swing is sought after by most golfers they want more distance for creating more power and more club head speed we are going to generate more distance with the golf ball. It also helps keep both the acute and chronic nagging injury to a minimum. Next, take the club a little straighter back on your takeaway. Locking the left shoulder helps you to stay connected throughout the swing, keeping the arms and body working in unison to work the club properly. So yes, even golfers should be pressing!. This can lead to your shoulders and pelvis tilting too far to one side or an uneven. To do this, place the club on the back of your neck again and turn your hips back to 45 degrees. With a ducked back swing, the club will be brought back along a much flatter plane, and the head of the club will point drastically off of the target line, often pointing well behind you. The back of the collar is ventilated for breathability. With the Golf Loopy Swing like a Champion system, you will learn how to generate more power, accuracy and consistency by powering the golf swing with the big muscles in your legs and core, and that your shoulders transfer that power through to. You may want to widen your stance slightly (insteps of feet even with the outside of the shoulders) with the longer clubs to accommodate the wider swing arc. As you start your downswing turn your hips first. Watch any power hitter and you’ll see that, at the top, the shoulders are turned, but level. 26 The modern swing, separating the hips and shoulders as much as possible during the backswing (X-factor), gains more power and finishes in lumbar hyperextension. Sign in to make your opinion count. just lifting the arms. Try to keep everything together, avoid independent hand, hip or body motion. Consider other ways to lower your risk of golf injuries: Warm up. Try it: Stand like you’re going to hit a ball, and tuck your chin down. Whichever term you choose, doing it makes your swing much easier to repeat because your body helps your arms repeat the same path each time. I think every good player, every good. One swing thought to improve your swing is left arm position. Consider adopting a flatter swing plane to sweep the ball off the turf and reduce the chance of shoulder-jolting divots. - If you have a difficult time taking the correct divot, a steeper shoulder turn will enable you to be. Avoid separating your knees or letting one drop forward. Keeping your right shoulder back, now the club, once it gets to the ball, if my right shoulder stays back and doesn't move forward, well the club isn't going to magically stop. As Steve Elkington explains in his book, Five Fundamentals, "The club starts back, guided not by the arms, hands, or wrists, but by the body. Do: Maintain proper strength and flexibility of the shoulder and scapular muscles (of both shoulders). The left shoulder is heavily involved in the backswing, but it should not be the initial move -- the first part of the body to move should be your hips. Your lower body. Keep your left hip from shifting to the right as you swing your club back. I know what you're thinking. Keep that in mind, this is going to help to get an overall idea or better picture of how the shoulders work in the swing, but don't try to go out to the range and work on every single piece of this all at once. Do not shift your shoulders or hips back (this is probably the most noticeable difference for most golfers). What you need to keep in mind is each one of those player's swings works due to how their body functions. Shifting weight to the back foot is natural in the golf swing, but too much weight shift back is when amateur golfers get into trouble. Rotation, of course, starts with the shoulders. #1 training aid for 2018. You may think of this shoulder, it doesn’t matter, just so long as the shoulders are moving in a backswing. As Steve Elkington explains in his book, Five Fundamentals, "The club starts back, guided not by the arms, hands, or wrists, but by the body. The Downswing and the Golf Swing Plane. The left shoulder is heavily involved in the backswing, but it should not be the initial move -- the first part of the body to move should be your hips. In this tip I want to talk about your hip turn, and how much you’re supposed to be doing as you take the golf club back. Throughout the 18 holes of golf I played, I only hit 2 pulls out to the left, 2! This would have probably been into double figures. For the club face to come back to the ball square and centered, the geometry and relationship of the arms and upper body cannot change during the swing. You can get an early wrist set with you want doing this, or a late one that is personally preference. Viewed from down the line your hands will appear to be just above your right shoulder. What kind of head movement? The reason I ask is because lateral movement is actually OK. See The Symple Turn - A simplied lower body motion for the golf swing. Keep your shoulders back. The shape of the golf swing, in particular, the plane of the swing, is determined primarily by the angle of the spine at address. To generate torque and increase club. Keep the lower body stable. The knee flex in the golf swing changes. Let the upper, pull the lower body into position. Using proper body positioning in the backswing, downswing, impact, 2. To succeed in swinging upright, you must have flexibility in the horizontal and vertical planes of your shoulders. The shoulder goes through a large ROM during the golf swing including a large degree of left shoulder horizontal adduction and right shoulder external rotation in the backswing. Bend the right knee and left shoulder downward for your backswing. This is a false perception. Golfers Back in the Swing as Presidio, Other Courses Reopen By Joe Rosato Jr. * On your downswing, try to keep your back to your target as long as you can. These angles, formed at the right shoulder, hip and knee, must be maintained in order to deliver the club powerfully into the back of the golf ball. But, the takeaway determines the backswing, so it's important to understand exactly how to start your swing once you're ready to pull the trigger. Golfers must maintain proper spine angle through the swing to keep the lunging motion from taking over. The right shoulder in the downswing can create power when rotating, but it cannot create the club head speed that you need over time. Proper movement of the shoulders: • Place a golf club across your shoulders and criss-cross your hands to opposite shoulders. One swing thought to improve your swing is left arm position. The shoulders need to turn in a circle. Unsubscribe from Meandmygolf? Sign in to add this video to a playlist. This creates a basically straight start to the swing and wide extension. Check out my articles in Bunkered magazine or find me in the professional shop at Peebles Golf. The real answer, like most things in golf, is "it depends. Golfers spend four to five hours in a bent position while applying pressure to the spine and back muscles. As Steve Elkington explains in his book, Five Fundamentals, "The club starts back, guided not by the arms, hands, or wrists, but by the body. Having the ball further back in the stance (I believe) is of much better use when you want to control trojectory, swing speed, and a proper strike. The downswing occurs right after the top of the swing position is reached. I want to be like Sadlowski," and you start trying to rotate your rib cage 140 or 150 degrees, your. In addition, it will help direct the proper path away from the ball. So then if you keep your body in that same position then put your right elbow in front of your right hip and then rotate, you're in a pretty good position to rotate into the ball and rip it. So I'm thinking about right shoulder turning on the same level that it was grasped. Get 75 to 80 percent of your weight to the inside of the right leg at the top of your swing. Be sure to have the grip end off your lead shoulder and the clubhead flat against the opposite shoulder. Imagine leaving your back facing the target as your hips shift toward target. Initial Shoulder Turn. So your hips are pulling your shoulder down to impact. In addition, it will help direct the proper path away from the ball. no bend in either wrist so that both thumbs are horizontal at top of backswing - almost feel as if the left thumb points down ) - this creates the very important WIDTH of backswing. Reduce your swing length. In a golf swing we rotate around our spine but the center of the club head arc is the lead shoulder, and the main lever in a golf swing is comprised of the lead arm and the club shaft. A golf swing, in its simplest form, calls for a slight bend from the waist allowing the hip hinge to keep the spine straight. What we want to do is wind up our golf swing from top down. Injuries to golfers commonly involve the wrist, hand and lower back. This will only give you about a 70* shoulder turn, I find that this is easier on the back and it is an easier swing to learn and to repeat time after time. Feel like your standing in perfect balance relaxed from top to bottom. You’ll find you will do a reverse pivot with your head and shoulders pointing back towards the target. Try to keep the clubhead as far away from your lead shoulder as you can through impact and into the start of the follow-through, with your arms really extending to the 3 o'clock position. It takes sharp eyes, sound logic, a. Comments Off on Feet and Shoulder Alignment Aligning your feet and shoulders is the easiest way to consistently address the ball with your shoulders parallel to the target line. If we have not rocked the shoulders but truly coiled, our left shoulder will be almost over the right knee when we have completed the back-swing. Your shoulders are, perhaps, the most important part of this type of golf stroke. Sign in to make your opinion count. This drill will help keep the clubhead low during the takeaway. Not everyone has the flexibility and/or strength to make a full shoulder turn behind the golf ball. How many of us do that? Fewer than we would probably like to admit. Loss of Posture is defined as any significant alteration from your body’s original set up angles during your golf swing. Never think about my hands or. I don't know if I just took things way to literally when I have received instruction, but I have definitely developed a swing where my arms are like jelly and the shoulders power the swing. Because turning your shoulders back to the golf ball WILL cause you to swing outside in or over the top. If your shoulders do this during your backswing and you think you are turning, this is the root of your backswing maladies. Joe Slowinski, a USBC Gold Coach, is a freelance bowling coach who works with bowlers around the globe. Here's the drill you need to develop shoulder tilt. * On your downswing, try to keep your back to your target as long as you can. Your arms simply turn with your torso. To get you to feel this, try to turn your left shoulder over your right knee. It takes sharp eyes, sound logic, a. Shaun explains how the hips of a professional go through a slight lowering towards the ground during transition, followed by a sharp raising up through the execution phase. The weight tends to stay on the back leg through the impact area. Unfortunately, it is easy to go wrong with the use of your shoulders, and the speed of your swing will suffer as a result of those mistakes. Notice, his hands do not reach out, they swing straight back inside the blue line; Top of the swing (Picture 3) Shoulders are parallel to the yellow plane line; Left arm is parallel to the yellow swing plane line; Hips are rotated approximately 40 degrees, while his shoulders are rotated 90 degrees. Body alignment: Shoulders aimed far too far to the right. Also, this position allows the arms to move freely into the back swing as well as though impact and follow through. Introduction. While Jack Nicklaus in his book titled 100 lessons and in one of golf digest articles he said swing arms freely let body responds (shoulders and hips turn) and let the club dominate you and body respond not the other around, who can argue with the man winning more majors in regular and senior tour in history of golf regarding how to play golf. That shot is doomed to go anywhere but where you want it. Once we get that…we’re going to start basing our golf swing on a creation of torque instead of just hitting at the golf ball. Dufner's no-nonsense golf swing has no unnecessary motion, relying heavily on the big muscles of the core and the shoulders to drive the shot. Make sure you lead the handle of the club through the impact area. But the best way to develop a consistent golf swing is to break the swing down into pieces. CONNECTION IN THE GOLF SWING. Now, he is one of the most. Keep your head steady as well-not moving it up or down nor left or right. Viewed from down the line your hands will appear to be just above your right shoulder. The shoulders are one of the parts of the body that play an integral role in the success or failure of your golf swing. Once we get that…we're going to start basing our golf swing on a creation of torque instead of just hitting at the golf ball. The best ball strikers of all time start from an address position which closely replicates their impact position, this strips out the need to perform complicated movements during. How it Feels. Reduce the trajectory of your golf swing by keeping your hands low when finishing your shot. The shoulders begin the backswing by turning away from the ball until the hands are at waist high. Many golfers are told that the right elbow should be in a specific position at the end of the backswing, but this isn't necessarily true. This is the goal of the golf swing: keep the golf club in a slot, essentially dissecting the shoulder on the back swing and follow through. Throughout the 18 holes of golf I played, I only hit 2 pulls out to the left, 2! This would have probably been into double figures. keep head and body behind ball throughout swing. Hit with 80% of power. This is something ALL Tour Pros do. As you do, you will see that your shoulders did not move into the fully coiled 90 degree position. Making a good turn is essential in trying to build a powerful golf swing. An open or closed. There are two key elements in the golf swing that all great players do when they are playing well. - If your swing tends to get too long, the steeper pivot actually creates more tension in the backswing and this will serve to tighten/shorten the backswing. You want to hit a home run, then that actually happens by putting less effort into your swing. It became clear that I was turning my shoulders too early, producing an open face and an out to in swing plane. Without proper weight transfer, nothing else in your entire swing will work properly! Build your golf game on the rock-solid foundation of the five Concept Golf swing principles. The first step is to simply swing to the top of your backswing and pause. Here's a hint - Hogan is pivoting properly, Woods and Kuchar are not. Another good feel for me on the backswing is to pinch my right shoulder blade in toward the middle of my back. We place a lot of emphasis on good posture, having the core muscles activated, and on having the shoulders depressed and "connected" to the core. Likewise ensure to turn your shoulders into the back swing. Your ability to rotate your shoulders during the back swing equals your power potential, so if your initial position is faulty it will drain the power from your swing and ruin the path of the club. It feels like the mass of your chest muscles are used on the back swing and downswing, instead of just your arms. The result is a big. Tip: Keep the club head moving straight back for the first 18 inches or so - this will ensure that your club gets on a correct path. There's absolutely no advantage to distance, direction, shape or trajectory and when you think about it can only cause other problems in the swing. Reach under and grab the back of the swing underneath with both palms facing upward. This is in direct contrast to what most golfers attempt to do with their shoulders, which is: a. " If your shoulders reach forward, you will gain 3-4 inches of reach and you will be disconnected. An over-the-top swing starts with an overpowering move with the dominant ride side including the right hand and arm. A flat shoulder turn can cause the club to be out of position on the backswing and creates a shift in swing planes on the downswing which reduces the efficiency of the motion. Pull your shoulder blades back and down and raise your arms over your head to form a Y. " The key to shoulder position at impact is matching your pivot with your arm swing. At the early stages of the takeaway, only your arms are bringing the club back. "Weekend golfers tend to turn their shoulders too much on a level plane. The easiest way I have found to get a repeatable takeaway is to feel like you are pulling the trialling shoulder blade (right shoulder on RH golfers) back behind your head allowing the arms to come along for the ride and not do anything. What moves the most and the greatest distance in the golf swing? What moves the most in the backswing is the hands, followed then by the arms, shoulders, hips, knees, and then feet. Exercises to improve stabilization of the wrist joint and lower back are key parts of a training program for golfers. How to Construct an Effective Golf Swing Many people think that the most effective way to develop a consistent golf swing is to stand on the range whacking balls until you get it right. • Turn your shoulders back to zero degrees to the target line with your trail shoulder turning down toward the ball. They forget to point it down. The Golf Downswing. Keeping your head behind the ball can ensure good contact. The Golf Swing In Two Moves It also gets the left shoulder turning back so the upper body starts to coil against a stable lower body. Here is a list of the top ten things you will automatically do if these two. As a result, shoulder turn during your golf swing is decreased and increased stress occurs to your rotator cuff. Swing path controls the direction of ball flight. These angles, formed at the right shoulder, hip and knee, must be maintained in order to deliver the club powerfully into the back of the golf ball. If you have maintained your correct posture, the handle should point directly to the ball as you complete your 90 degree. The first downswing move is the most critical part of the modern, total golf swing, and it has been referred to as the modern, total body golf swing's "magical move". To position the upper body and generate speed, the shoulder muscles come into play. Swing Drills. That means you don't have to swing to parallel and beyond. Swing easy and hit hard using less arm effort during a golf shot. Here is a list of the top ten things you will automatically do if these two. The left shoulder movement is an important element in the golf swing, and having the right concept of how it moves will improve your golf swing. Nobody makes golf clubs the way we do. Make the necessary adjustments in your swing to. Make your backswing and see where the grip now points to. " If your shoulders reach forward, you will gain 3-4 inches of reach and you will be disconnected. The back of the collar is ventilated for breathability. In this video Steve Johnston tells us that on the downswing the shoulder is a three dimensional move - down, forward and out. Whichever term you choose, doing it makes your swing much easier to repeat because your body helps your arms repeat the same path each time. If you area beginner in the sport, you must be having several beginners golf swing. One swing thought to improve your swing is left arm position. Most golfers misapply the one piece takeaway by turning their shoulders and do not do anything with their arms. Remember to keep your weight on your front foot. Your shoulders are, perhaps, the most important part of this type of golf stroke. * On your downswing, try to keep your back to your target as long as you can. Weight doesn't shift to the right foot shoulders. Viewed from down the line your hands will appear to be just above your right shoulder. Shoulders back feels wrong, losing width. The best way to sustain the left shoulder rotation is to swing through to a well-architected and balanced finish. turn them as much as they can and. As Steve Elkington explains in his book, Five Fundamentals, "The club starts back, guided not by the arms, hands, or wrists, but by the body. In many ways, the shoulders are the engine of the golf swing, as they need to turn back and through properly if you are going to generate power. Golfers' Shoulders - Injuries and Pain in Golf. Hanging Back can force a player to excessively right side bend through impact. This is a huge part of the swing so you must learn how to do it properly. 26,27 The impact and follow-through phase of the golf swing account for the most injuries when compared to other phases. Keep your hips and low back stable. To do this, plant your. Delaying Shoulder Turn - any drills? - posted in Golf Instruction: Hi guys, Ive worked closely with my local pro on trying to get rid of my slice. Keeping your head behind the ball can ensure good contact. Determining the width of a golfer's shoulder rotation during their golf swing allows further adjustments to be made in the interest of improving their game. A great indicator of whether this is happening during the backswing is to hold a club horizontally across your shoulders with the handle pointing towards the target. Recall the point I made about the arms feeling connected to. Please see the Full Swing Takeaway Lesson for more complete details on how to swing back to this position. Swing Drills. Locking the left shoulder helps you to stay connected throughout the swing, keeping the arms and body working in unison to work the club properly. Initial Shoulder Turn. Back in the swing of things | Glimpse of the Action and Hayden Buell wear masks as they chip onto the putting green at DeLaveaga Golf Course on Monday. This creates a steep downswing creating an outside to in swing path. There is a lot of conflicting advice about whether the shoulders should be open, square, or even closed at impact. How to Construct an Effective Golf Swing Many people think that the most effective way to develop a consistent golf swing is to stand on the range whacking balls until you get it right. With a ducked back swing, the club will be brought back along a much flatter plane, and the head of the club will point drastically off of the target line, often pointing well behind you. How To Swing A Golf Club - The Backswing. Start your backswing by turning your shoulders. All I did was make the conscious effort to shift my weight left, lower half first, while my back was still facing my target, then, once my weight had moved, turned through the swing as normal. Downswing -- Maintain Angles From the top of the backswing, the downswing is initiated by the lower body with a rotation of the hips and gradual shifting of the weight to the front leg. If your shoulders are open (right shoulder in front of left) the right shoulder will tilt too much and the putter will arrive at impact on a steep angle. 26 The modern swing, separating the hips and shoulders as much as possible during the backswing (X-factor), gains more power and finishes in lumbar hyperextension. It takes years of practice to learn how to make a great golf swing and, if you want to get it right each time you step up to the ball, then you will need to practice so that your swing becomes one flowing and graceful motion from the start of your backswing, through the impact of the ball and into your follow through. Golf hip raise movement. Notice how far your left shoulder moved. What many people don't know about Hogan was how the great teacher Percy Boomer influenced Hogan's swing philosophy. My son was getting bored watching for me by the end! I teed the ball up and came back slowly (7 iron) until I could see the club head out of my left eye. The shaft should lean forward so that the handle is positioned in front of the clubhead, with your hands in front of your left pant pleat. Let a relaxed left arm rise over the chest, literally touching it, and remaining a straight line from shoulder to clubhead (ie. In the golf swing, C posture compromises the ability to create an effective proper address position (the foundation of your golf swing) and diminishes the ability to effectively turn the shoulders. • Turn your shoulders 90 degrees away from the target line. It's characterized by a straight spine or back and is really the precursor to an efficient, textbook golf swing. If you have maintained your correct posture, the handle should point directly to the ball as you complete your 90 degree. Not awesome for me. This will help to lower the stress placed on the low back in the golf swing. Golf Shoulder Injuries. While many golf instructors advise casual players to keep their swings simple and repeatable, there are a few fundamentals on which any player should focus to develop a solid downswing. There's plenty of drills you can practice to keep a steady head. Hi, Robin here. Stretch the lead. Every movement of the arm be it up, down, inwards, outwards, slow or fast, involves the muscle activity of the arm and shoulder muscle. Dufner's no-nonsense golf swing has no unnecessary motion, relying heavily on the big muscles of the core and the shoulders to drive the shot. When the left shoulder swings out, the right shoulder pushes back. Once we get that…we’re going to start basing our golf swing on a creation of torque instead of just hitting at the golf ball. In order to have a repeating and efficient golf swing we must make the transition from back swing to forward swing a simultaneous move between the upper body and lower body. Golf is a unique sport with regards to the shoulders in that each shoulder has to do a very specific and very opposite manoeuvre in swinging the golf club. This is true in the backswing, the downswing and the follow-through. " The key to shoulder position at impact is matching your pivot with your arm swing. Nearly 90 percent of all golfers don’t get the shoulder turn they need. In the privacy of your bedroom or bathroom in front of a full length mirror, before getting fully dressed, take a 5, 6 or 7 iron and get into the set up position. The head, at this stage of the golf swing, plays a vital role. While Jack Nicklaus in his book titled 100 lessons and in one of golf digest articles he said swing arms freely let body responds (shoulders and hips turn) and let the club dominate you and body respond not the other around, who can argue with the man winning more majors in regular and senior tour in history of golf regarding how to play golf. Gimme Three Strokes: Pushing The Right Shoulder back9network Follow My quest to a single-digit handicap continues this week as we refocus on proper impact position and how your right shoulder can make all the difference in your golf swing. Keep your swing connected: A common swing flaw for many golfers is to have their hands and arms get disconnected from their body during the golf swing. The hands, arms, shoulders, hips, knees, and feet all move back in the same time. The perfect golf swing begins with your setup, but most golfers suffer from some kind of imbalance at address. Throughout the 18 holes of golf I played, I only hit 2 pulls out to the left, 2! This would have probably been into double figures. Golf Downswing Check Points. It would simply move forward as the weight shifted forward. To generate power during a golf swing, you should use the big parts of your body. Keeping your arms in front of your chest forces the shoulders to turn - and if this 'shoulder turn' is gentle, your club will be right where it needs to be during your backswing. The shoulder joint itself is a classic ball and socket joint. get into back swing position. Reach under and grab the back of the swing underneath with both palms facing upward. Try to identify what a relaxed demeanor feels like. a shaft in the ground provides a good test — a deterrent to keep your hip from going too far. The more you do the quicker it will feel good. You may think of this shoulder, it doesn't matter, just so long as the shoulders are moving in a backswing. That means rotating aggressively to the left with your lower body and your torso. Loss of Posture is defined as any significant alteration from your body’s original set up angles during your golf swing. To do this, plant your. This is something ALL Tour Pros do. Jordan's is a swing that the Occasional Golfer can imitate with success. The follow through position was characterised by a relatively neutral spinal position and the momentum of the player moving forward. There's plenty of drills you can practice to keep a steady head. This is the position I see most amateur golfers have. Keep rest minimal at 45-60 secs. Prolonged sitting also leads to tight hip flexors, which in turn, will pull your pelvis forward and place more stress on your low back. Again, think "around" rather than "up and down. Front Shoulder's Role. For the club face to come back to the ball square and centered, the geometry and relationship of the arms and upper body cannot change during the swing. In a more conventional swing the plane of the swing runs from the clubhead to a point in the upper chest which intersects with the right shoulder at the top of the backswing. There's plenty of drills you can practice to keep a steady head. That's all I think about. Notice, his hands do not reach out, they swing straight back inside the blue line; Top of the swing (Picture 3) Shoulders are parallel to the yellow plane line; Left arm is parallel to the yellow swing plane line; Hips are rotated approximately 40 degrees, while his shoulders are rotated 90 degrees. My son was getting bored watching for me by the end! I teed the ball up and came back slowly (7 iron) until I could see the club head out of my left eye. Practice these positions, and you will develop a more consistent swing. There is an easy solution to this problem of a poor shoulder turn. A bigger shoulder turn in the golf swing is important, but we must rotate in the correct region of our back. While Jack Nicklaus in his book titled 100 lessons and in one of golf digest articles he said swing arms freely let body responds (shoulders and hips turn) and let the club dominate you and body respond not the other around, who can argue with the man winning more majors in regular and senior tour in history of golf regarding how to play golf. The left shoulder is heavily involved in the backswing, but it should not be the initial move -- the first part of the body to move should be your hips. As Steve Elkington explains in his book, Five Fundamentals, "The club starts back, guided not by the arms, hands, or wrists, but by the body. Getting them back to the correct position once your swing has begun is next to impossible. As you'll read below it's essential to minimize the impact of your dominant side to get your shoulders working the way they are designed to. " Your spine tilt will take care of the upward motion, and your shoulder turn will keep you from lifting your shoulder during your backswing. From there, take the club all the way back and up to a half or three-quarter swing, and then swing down into the golf ball. The belt will force you to keep your elbow tucked into your body, giving you the proper feeling as you rotate through impact. You have to turn your shoulders in the backswing. It's a great way to keep your shoulders and arms in the game while helping you rip your ribs through the ball for a more powerful strike. Additionally, very large amounts of trunk rotation are used to generate power in the golf swing, with contributions from the legs and hips playing […]. The shoulders are one of the parts of the body that play an integral role in the success or failure of your golf swing. Keep you head still — Another Palmer basic shared by Break80 Golf is to keep your head still and over the ball. Start your backswing by turning your shoulders. Downswing -- Maintain Angles From the top of the backswing, the downswing is initiated by the lower body with a rotation of the hips and gradual shifting of the weight to the front leg. Back Flexibility for. I like to feel that I’m squeezing my biceps against my pecs. I know thet the golf swing is inherintly bad on the back no matter how you swing, but I was just wondering if using primarily #1PA #4PA may spare my back a little more than pulling hard w/ #4. Complete shoulder relaxation is critical as you reverse the swing from the backswing to the swing through the ball. But, if you’re like me, you always found it difficult to wind up  your upper body like a corkscrew in an attempt to generate power. Hold for 20 to 60 seconds and. so that the right shoulder can keep up with the straightening right arm Jack Nicklaus' post-impact clubface roll-over action - capture images from a swing video [9] Note how the back of the left hand, and therefore clubface, rotates 90 degrees between impact (image 1) and the. It feels like the mass of your chest muscles are used on the back swing and downswing, instead of just your arms. The wrong way to shorten your swing is to reduce your shoulder turn and make a very armsy golf swing. There should be very little change in your weight distribution. If you can make this three dimensional downswing move, the result will be a finish (hopefully) that looks like Lexi Thompson’s, and that will add yards to your shots. This creates the torque of the left-side back muscles early in the swing, because the hips are open and the shoulders are closing. Some experienced golfers play with their feet a little open or closed at address, but all great golfers make sure to square their shoulders to the target line at set-up. What kind of head movement? The reason I ask is because lateral movement is actually OK. With a ducked back swing, the club will be brought back along a much flatter plane, and the head of the club will point drastically off of the target line, often pointing well behind you. That's all I think about. Golf Digest may earn a portion of sales from products. , pulling out the driver. That is the feeling of a perfect golf downswing. "Many amateurs bury the chin in the chest during setup, which restricts the shoulder turn," says Tiger. Practice these positions, and you will develop a more consistent swing. In many ways, the shoulders are the engine of the golf swing, as they need to turn back and through properly if you are going to generate power. From a standing position, step on one handle of the resistance band and grasp the other with both hands, thumbs facing up. Once the hips start going forward, the Swing Governor will push the front foot forward & perpendicular so it "posts" This action causes the Hips to momentarily Decelerate and the Swing Governor slides out, just as centifugal acceleration takes over & whips the Shoulders, Hands & club through into the back of the ball. We will also look at injury- inducing swing faults, fixes and prevention. Then, place a middle iron in front (not behind) the first ball. It may only take one second, but this video proves the backswing can be studied and practiced for hours. Find videos similar to this: Shoulder Plane Hand Path Club Path Rotation - Shoulder and Torso Bradley Hughes Full Swing Slicing the Ball Coming Over The Top Casting From the Top Downswing. If the right shoulder starts first in the downswing the golf club will have a tendency to swing outside the arc too much and if the left hip starts first in the downswing the golf club will have a tendency to start inside the arc too much. This is my way of keeping my shoulders turning on a steep angle and making a full windup. Rotation vs. An open or closed. Keeping your head behind the ball can ensure good contact. The chest and triceps are among the major muscle groups recruited during the golf swing, and strong, healthy shoulders are also important. A full shoulder turn is a must in the golf swing, if you do not turn your shoulders then all you are doing is using your arms to generate club head speed to hit the golf ball, your arms are attached to your shoulders so if you turn your shoulders then your arms and hands will follow – trust me the human body is a brilliant piece of technology it. Impact lasts for just the blink of an eye, as the club face slams into the back of the ball and sends it rocketing off into the distance. A backswing plane that is upright, or steep, can work very well as long as plane is flattened during the transition to the forward swing. Body swing is essentially your spine and your shoulders looking like a cross. Take your time and allow the rotation of your golf shoulders backswing to build naturally. Inhale as you use your bottom elbow for leverage to reach your top elbow upward. This will help to lower the stress placed on the low back in the golf swing. If you do not allow your hips to rotate your shoulders as a result will only rotate approximately 30-45 degrees during your back swing (Hoskison, 2009). It consists of the movements that occur as you bring your hands and the club back down. The Golf Fix's Michael Breed describes the role of the trail shoulder in the golf swing and how it can be used to gain distance. So when we go back to the classic Hogan explanation of the swing plane being governed by the setup and height of the golfer, the only way that a golfer will be on that same plane at the top of their swing is if the combined horizontal and vertical movements of their shoulder turn happens to match that angle. If your shoulders do this during your backswing and you think you are turning, this is the root of your backswing maladies. He points his cigarette at the ball at address, on the takeaway, on the backswing, on the downswing, and just after impact. All pictures were taken at Ocean Trails Golf Club, which is now Trump National Golf Club Los Angeles, in Rancho Palos Verdes, California. This loss of posture can affect all aspects of the golf swing including timing, balance and rhythm. But the right hand for right handed player is below the left hand when we grip the golf club. You have to turn your shoulders in the backswing. Ben Hogan wore holes in his shirt where his shoulders would touch his chin on the backswing and the forward swing. The rotator cuff belongs of the shoulder that assists to stabilize the whole shoulder and arm through movement. Don’t discount how easy they look until you try them. An open or closed. ® Our clubs are engineered with no cost or time constraints for golfers who demand the very best. These simple lower body separation exercises will help you create a lot of power in your golf swing. Jim Suttie on golf: How to fix your over-the-top swing. In many ways, the shoulders are the engine of the golf swing, as they need to turn back and through properly if you are going to generate power. Golf Tips - Hands Inside the Club Head During The Swing. Please see the Full Swing Takeaway Lesson for more complete details on how to swing back to this position. Golf is a unique sport with regards to the shoulders in that each shoulder has to do a very specific and very opposite manoeuvre in swinging the golf club. Without proper weight transfer, nothing else in your entire swing will work properly! Build your golf game on the rock-solid foundation of the five Concept Golf swing principles. Swing medicine ball as you would your club (arm and hand motions will be different), and when your arms are at a 45° down angle, release the medicine ball, throwing it. Every movement of the arm be it up, down, inwards, outwards, slow or fast, involves the muscle activity of the arm and shoulder muscle. To generate power during a golf swing, you should use the big parts of your body. whose forearms are longer than their upper arms) and who prefer to hinge their wrists in a vertical manner. These simple lower body separation exercises will help you create a lot of power in your golf swing. Golf Digest: Stay connected with Core Swing golf polo. The Golf Fix: The role of the trail shoulder. Now conversely protraction is the exact opposite. The horizontal bar (shoulders) rotate around the vertical bar (spine) with you triceps tight against your sides. Shifting weight to the back foot is natural in the golf swing, but too much weight shift back is when amateur golfers get into trouble. That means you don't have to swing to parallel and beyond. Tuck your toes under, roll your shoulders onto your back, away from your ears, and push away from the floor. Remember, your head will move to the back but should not bob up or down. So yes, even golfers should be pressing!. Keep your shoulders back. The wrong way to shorten your swing is to reduce your shoulder turn and make a very armsy golf swing. You do not need to hit a ball, just get used to the position of your hands and this in turn will improve your swing arc. That is the feeling of a perfect golf downswing. Hold the club in front of your belly button with your arms and legs straight. You will see that on that backswing your front shoulder (the one closet to the target) is under your chin, at impact both your shoulders are square at the ball, and in the follow through your back shoulder is under your chin and. Don't shift your weight, move your hips, or turn your shoulders. But the right hand for right handed player is below the left hand when we grip the golf club. 👉🏻 Apply a little pressure into the wall. It takes sharp eyes, sound logic, a. The result is consistency and distance. Another postural issue that can significantly impact a golf swing is rounded shoulders. Sign in to make your opinion count. Golf Swing & Loose Wrists. This creates the torque of the left-side back muscles early in the swing, because the hips are open and the shoulders are closing. Check out my articles in Bunkered magazine or find me in the professional shop at Peebles Golf. In this tip I explain the golf weight shift. the golf swing. The swing plane is about the clubhead rather than the clubshaft with the left arm and shaft being parallel to the shaft line at the the top of the backswing. Your lower back should remain flat rather than rounded. Let a relaxed left arm rise over the chest, literally touching it, and remaining a straight line from shoulder to clubhead (ie. Notice how far your left shoulder moved. On the longer swing the backswing is started with the core but then as the backswing get about to horizontal the "core" start to pull the back hip away from the ball initiating the turning of the hips. You must keep them working towards each other during the entire swing. That means rotating aggressively to the left with your lower body and your torso. Biceps: Curls (Notes: Stand facing the swing. Some experienced golfers play with their feet a little open or closed at address, but all great golfers make sure to square their shoulders to the target line at set-up. Getting the golf downswing sequence correct starts with a proper downswing transition. It consists of the movements that occur as you bring your hands and the club back down. This is a perfect position right here to, an isolation of the hips, and how the hips are supposed to move. This exercise helps correct upper-back and shoulder mobility restrictions, very important in allowing golfers to perform a fluid and effortless swing. Recall the point I made about the arms feeling connected to. Not awesome for me. There's plenty of drills you can practice to keep a steady head. Rotation, of course, starts with the shoulders. Practice the correct takeaway by placing a tee in the ground approximately 20 inches behind the ball. Your shoulders should have turned about 90 degrees and your hips should have turned 45 degrees or less, depending on your flexibility. To succeed in swinging upright, you must have flexibility in the horizontal and vertical planes of your shoulders. (See above). Bend the right knee and left shoulder downward for your backswing. Transcript. How To Swing A Golf Club - The Backswing. From a standing position, step on one handle of the resistance band and grasp the other with both hands, thumbs facing up. the golf swing. So your hips are pulling your shoulder down to impact. The left arm will have to come around and across the chest in any case, and I think the right arm is better off sitting closer to the chest than the back, so it keeps the hands on plane and don't get stuck behind you. The Golf Fix's Michael Breed describes the role of the trail shoulder in the golf swing and how it can be used to gain distance. Determining the width of a golfer's shoulder rotation during their golf swing allows further adjustments to be made in the interest of improving their game. a full shoulder turn. Bend the right knee and left shoulder downward for your backswing. 16 However, the latter paper merely reported that there was larger variation in. Second Magic Move: Keep Your Head Back. Most of your tour professionals are in the smaller category. 26,27 The impact and follow-through phase of the golf swing account for the most injuries when compared to other phases. In a golf swing we rotate around our spine but the center of the club head arc is the lead shoulder, and the main lever in a golf swing is comprised of the lead arm and the club shaft. CONNECTION IN THE GOLF SWING. The chest and triceps are among the major muscle groups recruited during the golf swing, and strong, healthy shoulders are also important. Waldron illusion works for those that have a steep downswing plane cutting through their shoulder line ( ie. Get 75 to 80 percent of your weight to the inside of the right leg at the top of your swing. Point your chin at a spot just behind the ball throughout the swing. All pictures were taken at Ocean Trails Golf Club, which is now Trump National Golf Club Los Angeles, in Rancho Palos Verdes, California. Downswing Magic Move 2: Keeping the Head Back. This can lead to your shoulders and pelvis tilting too far to one side or an uneven. Impact lasts for just the blink of an eye, as the club face slams into the back of the ball and sends it rocketing off into the distance. You may want to widen your stance slightly (insteps of feet even with the outside of the shoulders) with the longer clubs to accommodate the wider swing arc. In many ways, the shoulders are the engine of the golf swing, as they need to turn back and through properly if you are going to generate power. The golf swing isn't easy on our backs; all that twisting and bending can lead to back pain or even injury, but these back exercises for golfers will help to avoid back pain and injury. That is the feeling of a perfect golf downswing. Keeping your right shoulder back, now the club, once it gets to the ball, if my right shoulder stays back and doesn't move forward, well the club isn't going to magically stop. There are some sports that combine relaxation with activity. Keeping your arms in front of your chest forces the shoulders to turn - and if this 'shoulder turn' is gentle, your club will be right where it needs to be during your backswing. I am a lefty and i start the downswing by dropping the back shoulder an this moves everything in sync hips arms knees etc. We place a lot of emphasis on good posture, having the core muscles activated, and on having the shoulders depressed and "connected" to the core. * Make sure you make a big shoulder turn on the backswing. In Jimmy Ballard’s swing, your whole left shoulder and left lat are used to move the club back to initiate the takeaway. So what smarter golfers do, is swing to the top and then they keep their shoulders in this position and turn their hips and keep your shoulders in that close position for as long as possible, one should adjust into this position just before the hit of the ball, now turn the shoulders and the body through and that will allow the club to. Maintain flex in right knee throughout swing. They should remain fairly passive. Whichever term you choose, doing it makes your swing much easier to repeat because your body helps your arms repeat the same path each time. We swing the club back and up as the shoulders coil until the left shoulder is below the chin. In his golf swing, he kept his hands very low. Shaun explains how the hips of a professional go through a slight lowering towards the ground during transition, followed by a sharp raising up through the execution phase. Shifting your body back and forth with all that rotation will certainly generate more. So yes, even golfers should be pressing!. The golf swing isn't easy on our backs; all that twisting and bending can lead to back pain or even injury, but these back exercises for golfers will help to avoid back pain and injury. Shoulder Wall Slides. I was lifting the shoulders in the backswing - i. Those of you who have been watching The Haney Project (both versions) on TGC will recognize that this is the basic action Haney is teaching his "projects. Prolonged sitting also leads to tight hip flexors, which in turn, will pull your pelvis forward and place more stress on your low back. I think every good player, every good. Dreaming of getting back to the golf course?! So are we! Did you know pilates helps build great posture and core strength to keep a steady strong swing! Don’t miss the opportunity to compliment your. The course opened on Monday with new. Rotator cuff injuries prevail in golf due to the force and tension placed on the muscles through the swing. Most people when starting their golf swing take everything back all in one motion. Hanging Back can force a player to excessively right side bend through impact. When swinging the golf club, you want to have a swing thought. You will Fixing a golf swing is like debugging a computer program. You need to keep your left shoulder as square to your ball-target line as long as possible on the downswing. My left shoulder down on the back-swing key is the same thing. This is something ALL Tour Pros do. As you begin your downswing, keep your hips tucked underneath, lean a bit more into your front leg, straighten your back leg a bit and flex your front knee to set up the downswing thrust. The young player in the photo has failed to keep her swing pace in good order and thus falls victim to what I call the Hunch – Flip syndrome. Summary: This drill is all about being aware of where your back and shoulders are facing throughout the swing. The swing plane is about the clubhead rather than the clubshaft with the left arm and shaft being parallel to the shaft line at the the top of the backswing. It can tell you whether you've taken the club back far enough during your backswing, for example, and whether you're moving your arms correctly during your downswing. not keeping the angle of the spine. When they reopened Monday golfers were thrilled and thankful to get back into the swing of it. Throughout the 18 holes of golf I played, I only hit 2 pulls out to the left, 2! This would have probably been into double figures. On the longer swing the backswing is started with the core but then as the backswing get about to horizontal the "core" start to pull the back hip away from the ball initiating the turning of the hips. How to Construct an Effective Golf Swing. As you do, you will see that your shoulders did not move into the fully coiled 90 degree position. The head, at this stage of the golf swing, plays a vital role. BUNGEE JUMP YOUR GOLF SWING The legendary golf professional, Ben Hogan, is regarded as one of the greatest golf swing technicians' of all professional golfers working endlessly everyday to perfect the most power efficient golf swing. Hold it a couple of seconds. 1K subscribers. Injuries to golfers commonly involve the wrist, hand and lower back. Make your backswing and see where the grip now points to. But, there’s little talk about the position of the pelvis between the setup position and the finish of the swing. Now pull the handles toward you as if you were rowing. It helps maintain freedom of movement. Another good feel for me on the backswing is to pinch my right shoulder blade in toward the middle of my back. Keeping your head behind the ball can ensure good contact. The second swing fault which may arise from lack of external shoulder rotation is a leveling out of the shoulders or flat shoulder plane. The image was that of a flat table for the baseball swing, then tipping it over to about a forty-five-degree diagonal for golf. Do not shift your shoulders or hips back (this is probably the most noticeable difference for most golfers). It feels like the mass of your chest muscles are used on the back swing and downswing, instead of just your arms. Place an iron across the tops of your shoulders and cross your arms to support. Ideally you want your head and shoulders to be leaning slightly away from the target in the backswing in a similar position to where they started at address. Swing easy and hit hard using less arm effort during a golf shot. The degree to which you can rotate this shoulder away from the ball during the backswing has a direct effect on how much clubhead speed you can produce and, subsequently, how far you will hit the ball. This will help get the club under the right shoulder on the way back and on the way down. Use the golf tips below in order to improve your golf downswing. Keep Your Hands Low Limiting the height of the followthrough will effectively reduce the height of your shots. The best ball strikers of all time start from an address position which closely replicates their impact position, this strips out the need to perform complicated movements during. The back foot (right foot for right handed players) should be approximately perpendicular to the target line, while the front foot should be slightly open (toe pointing outward). Golf Downswing Check Points. Free shipping and returns on Nike Golf Vapor Camo Jacquard Polo Shirt at Nordstrom. Stretch your hands, wrists, forearms, elbows, shoulders, spine and pelvis. If the shoulder slows down or stops for any reason (like being told to keep your head down), the clubhead won’t square off and the shot will most likely be missed to the right. When you raise your left shoulder up in the down-swing it is replaced with your right shoulder and this keeps the path coming from the inside and more shallow than you may realize. Most golfers misapply the one piece takeaway by turning their shoulders and do not do anything with their arms. Jim Suttie on golf: How to fix your over-the-top swing. What we want to do is wind up our golf swing from top down. One swing thought to improve your swing is left arm position. Research shows that shoulders generate around 20 percent of your total clubhead speed. Keep rest minimal at 45-60 secs. You may think of this shoulder, it doesn’t matter, just so long as the shoulders are moving in a backswing. So during the down swing you need to exaggerate two sensations, the first is of hitting the golf ball without turning your shoulder or torso at all. Don’t discount how easy they look until you try them. Injuries to golfers commonly involve the wrist, hand and lower back. For all of the work that is put into your golf swing, your club is only touching the ball for just a fraction of a second during each swing. Golf dowswing Part 1: The Problem. 26 The modern swing, separating the hips and shoulders as much as possible during the backswing (X-factor), gains more power and finishes in lumbar hyperextension. Too many amateur players begin their swing with a sharp, snapping movement, tugging the club back or lifting it up without paying any attention to how they lift it. It doesn't stay off very long though. You may have heard and/or read that the head is the anchor of the swing. This is a false perception. The knee flex in the golf swing changes. The higher the right shoulder, the higher the right forearm and so on In a correct pivot, the left shoulder's first move is down and then slightly across. In a more conventional swing the plane of the swing runs from the clubhead to a point in the upper chest which intersects with the right shoulder at the top of the backswing. Golf Digest may earn a portion of sales from products. You may think of this shoulder, it doesn’t matter, just so long as the shoulders are moving in a backswing. In this tip I explain the golf weight shift. If you have maintained your correct posture, the handle should point directly to the ball as you complete your 90 degree. To generate torque and increase club. Keep your hips and low back stable. Hunching your shoulders during your downswing ruins impact. To do this, place the club on the back of your neck again and turn your hips back to 45 degrees. I keep my arms where they fall naturally, but have done some drills with the arms closer together. In most cases, this can be corrected relatively easily, and can lead to nice improvements to their golf game. The goal is to keep the elbows fixed during the swing so the radius does not break down. You need to keep your left shoulder as square to your ball-target line as long as possible on the downswing. Keeping your arms in front of your chest forces the shoulders to turn - and if this 'shoulder turn' is gentle, your club will be right where it needs to be during your backswing. If you area beginner in the sport, you must be having several beginners golf swing. Swing back turning your back to your ball and your chin over your leading shoulder. Sit tall and upright. These muscles also help players maintain an erect spine. You want to hit a home run, then that actually happens by putting less effort into your swing. Avoid separating your knees or letting one drop forward. Keep that in mind, this is going to help to get an overall idea or better picture of how the shoulders work in the swing, but don’t try to go out to the range and work on every single piece of this all at once. You have to turn your shoulders in the backswing. Back in the swing of things | Glimpse of the Action and Hayden Buell wear masks as they chip onto the putting green at DeLaveaga Golf Course on Monday. What I see on a daily basis is players […]. To succeed in swinging upright, you must have flexibility in the horizontal and vertical planes of your shoulders. Or you can do a full-body circuit by hitting each exercise back-to-back without rest for 12-15 reps each. You want to hit a home run, then that actually happens by putting less effort into your swing. The motion you want off the ball is a pushing back movement by the left hand (pictured above). Don't shift your weight, move your hips, or turn your shoulders. Try this, keep your head dead still and make a back swing. I like to feel that I’m squeezing my biceps against my pecs. What can happen is a loss of posture where the person dips into the downswing (with their chest getting closer to the ground) or a reverse weight shift where the person falls back onto their rear foot as they come into the. The left shoulder is heavily involved in the backswing, but it should not be the initial move -- the first part of the body to move should be your hips. Sometimes even placing a small pillow or folded up towel at your low back for support will make a big difference. "Weekend golfers tend to turn their shoulders too much on a level plane. Golfers of all levels sabotaging their swings and scores before they even move the club back. One swing thought to improve your swing is left arm position. The Core Disassociation Exercise forms part of the Golf Mobility series of. As you begin your downswing, keep your hips tucked underneath, lean a bit more into your front leg, straighten your back leg a bit and flex your front knee to set up the downswing thrust. From there, you are attempting to rotate around a fixed axis, both back and through, while maintaining the posture.